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化学实验基础知识归纳  

2006-06-11 16:20:26|  分类: 化学实验 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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.中学化学实验操作中的七原则

   掌握下列七个有关操作顺序的原则,就可以正确解答“实验程序判断题”。   

    1.“从下往上”原则。以C12实验室制法为例,装配发生装置顺序是:放好铁架台→摆好酒精灯→根据酒精灯位置固定好铁圈→石棉网→固定好圆底烧瓶。

    2.“从左到右”原则。装配复杂装置应遵循从左到右顺序。如上装置装配顺序为:发生装置→集气瓶→尾气吸收。   

    3.先“塞”后“定”原则。带导管的塞子在烧瓶固定前塞好,以免烧瓶固定后因不宜用力而塞不紧或因用力过猛而损坏仪器。

    4.“固体先放”原则。上例中,烧瓶内试剂MnO2应在烧瓶固定前装入,以免固体放入时损坏烧瓶。总之固体试剂应在固定前加入相应容器中。   

    5.“液体后加”原则。液体药品在烧瓶固定后加入。如上例中浓盐酸应在烧瓶固定后在分液漏斗中缓慢加入。 

    6.先验气密性(装入药口前进行)原则。

    7.后点酒精灯(所有装置装完后再点酒精灯)原则。   

 

.中学化学实验中温度计的使用分哪三种情况以及哪些实验需要温度计    

    1.测反应混合物的温度:这种类型的实验需要测出反应混合物的准确温度,因此,应将温度计插入混合物中间。

     ①测物质溶解度。②实验室制乙烯。

    2.测蒸气的温度:这种类型的实验,多用于测量物质的沸点,由于液体在沸腾时,液体和蒸气的温度相同,所以只要测蒸气的温度。①实验室蒸馏石油。②测定乙醇的沸点。

    3.测水浴温度:这种类型的实验,往往只要使反应物的温度保持相对稳定,所以利用水浴加热,温度计则插入水浴中。①温度对反应速率影响的反应。②苯的硝化反应。

.常见的需要塞入棉花的实验有哪些

    需要塞入少量棉花的实验,它们是加热KMnO4制氧气,制乙炔和收集NH3。其作用分别是:防止KMnO4粉末进入导管;防止实验中产生的泡沫涌入导管;防止氨气与空气对流,以缩短收集NH3的时间。

.常见物质分离提纯的8种方法

    1.结晶和重结晶:利用物质在溶液中溶解度随温度变化较大,如NaClKNO3

    2.蒸馏冷却法:在沸点上差值大。乙醇中():加入新制的CaO吸收大部分水再蒸馏。  

    3.过滤法:溶与不溶。  

    4.升华法:SiO2(I2)

    5. 溶解法:Fe(A1):溶解在过量的NaOH溶液里过滤分离。

    6. 增加法:把杂质转化成所需要的物质:CO2(CO):通过热的CuOCO2(SO2):通过NaHCO3溶液。

    7. 吸收法:用做除去混合气体中的气体杂质,气体杂质必须被药品吸收:N2(O2):将混合气体通过铜网吸收O2  

    8. 转化法:两种物质难以直接分离,加药品变得容易分离,然后再还原回去:Al(OH)3Fe(OH)3:先加NaOH溶液把Al(OH)3溶解,过滤,除去Fe(OH)3,再加酸让NaAlO2转化成A1(OH)3

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